Both houses are directly elected under a parallel voting system. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in under the Meiji Constitution, and took its current form in upon the adoption of the post-war constitution. The houses of the Diet are both elected under parallel voting systems. This means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method; the main difference between the houses is in the sizes of the two groups and how they are elected. Voters are also asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, and one for a party list. Any national of Japan at least 18 years of age may vote in these elections, reduced from age 20 in
Laws must be approved by both houses, with bills generally being passed by the House of Representatives before being sent to the House of Councilors for approval. But the House of Representatives is the dominant force, and can generally ensure that it gets its own way in any dispute between the two houses. On matters of serious national importance, such as passing budgets, agreeing international treaties, or choosing a prime minister, the House of Representatives can override the House of Councilors with a simple majority vote; on all other matters, a two-thirds vote of the House of Representatives overrides the House of Councilors. The House of Councillors, therefore, can potentially kick a piece of legislation to the curb by simply delaying it for long enough that the session ends and the bill expires. But there are sometimes situations where the government controls a majority in the House of Representatives which is a requirement to be able to form a government at all, while the opposition parties have a majority in the House of Councilors. The LDP returned to power in and has had control of both houses of the Diet since then. This is one kind of legislation where the House of Representatives does not have authority over the House of Councilors. If two-thirds of the House of Councilors does not vote in favor of an amendment or at least, in favor of having a referendum on the amendment, it cannot proceed to a public vote. Like the U. The only time that the entire House of Councilors has been elected at once was in , when the first election was held.
Voting system. September 7, dissolution. Further information: Political funding in Japan. March 18, See also: Post-occupation Japan. November 11, September 28, dissolution. If the upper house rejects a bill passed by the lower house, it becomes law if passed again by the lower house in a two-thirds vote. The prime minister is usually a leader of the majority party. November 13, dissolution.